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Author Topic: Smoking and Type 2 Diabetes
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Post Smoking and Type 2 Diabetes
on: February 9, 2012, 03:48
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If you are a diabetic, quit smoking now, A cohort study by John Hopkins University

Smoking, smoking cessation, and risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cohort study.

<a href=”http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=%22Yeh%20HC%22%5BAuthor%5D”>Yeh HC</a>, <a href=”http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=%22Duncan%20BB%22%5BAuthor%5D”>Duncan BB</a>, <a href=”http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=%22Schmidt%20MI%22%5BAuthor%5D”>Schmidt MI</a>, <a href=”http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=%22Wang%20NY%22%5BAuthor%5D”>Wang NY</a>, <a href=”http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=%22Brancati%20FL%22%5BAuthor%5D”>Brancati FL</a>.
<h3>Source</h3>
Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. <a href=”mailto:hyeh1@jhmi.edu”>hyeh1@jhmi.edu</a>
<h3>Abstract</h3>
<h4>BACKGROUND:</h4>
Cigarette smoking is an established predictor of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus, but the effects of smoking cessation on diabetes risk are unknown.
<h4>OBJECTIVE:</h4>
To test the hypothesis that smoking cessation increases diabetes risk in the short term, possibly owing to cessation-related weight gain.
<h4>DESIGN:</h4>
Prospective cohort study.
<h4>SETTING:</h4>
The ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) Study.
<h4>PATIENTS:</h4>
10,892 middle-aged adults who initially did not have diabetes in 1987 to 1989.
<h4>MEASUREMENTS:</h4>
Smoking was assessed by interview at baseline and at subsequent follow-up. Incident diabetes was ascertained by fasting glucose assays through 1998 and self-report of physician diagnosis or use of diabetes medications through 2004.
<h4>RESULTS:</h4>
During 9 years of follow-up, 1254 adults developed type 2 diabetes. Compared with adults who never smoked, the adjusted hazard ratio of incident diabetes in the highest tertile of pack-years was 1.42 (95% CI, 1.20 to 1.67). In the first 3 years of follow-up, 380 adults quit smoking. After adjustment for age, race, sex, education, adiposity, physical activity, lipid levels, blood pressure, and ARIC Study center, compared with adults who never smoked, the hazard ratios of diabetes among former smokers, new quitters, and continuing smokers were 1.22 (CI, 0.99 to 1.50), 1.73 (CI, 1.19 to 2.53), and 1.31 (CI, 1.04 to 1.65), respectively. Further adjustment for weight change and leukocyte count attenuated these risks substantially. In an analysis of long-term risk after quitting, the highest risk occurred in the first 3 years (hazard ratio, 1.91 [CI, 1.19 to 3.05]), then gradually decreased to 0 at 12 years.
<h4>LIMITATION:</h4>
Residual confounding is possible even with meticulous adjustment for established diabetes risk factors.
<h4>CONCLUSION:</h4>
Cigarette smoking predicts incident type 2 diabetes, but smoking cessation leads to higher short-term risk. For smokers at risk for diabetes, smoking cessation should be coupled with strategies for diabetes prevention and early detection.

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1 Comments
  1. Myth #1: Carbohydrates are bad for you.

    All carbohydrates aren’t alike. Easily digested carbohydrates, such as those from white bread and white rice, if eaten often and in large quantities, may add to weight gain. But carbohydrates are also found in fruits, vegetables, beans, and dairy products; and these deliver essential vitamins, minerals, and fiber. Diabetes carbohydrates also give your body energy and help keep organs functioning properly.

    A system called the glycemic index measures how fast and how far blood sugar rises after you eat a food with carbohydrates. White rice, for example, is almost immediately converted to blood sugar (glucose), causing it to rise rapidly, and so has a high glycemic index. Whole grain bread is digested more slowly, making blood sugar climb more slowly and not as high. It has a low glycemic index. Whenever possible, select carbohydrates that is whole grain, such as whole grain bread, whole wheat pasta, and old fashioned oats.

    Myth #2. Vegetables mainly add fiber to your diabetic diet foods.

    Vegetables are excellent sources of fiber and they supply vitamins and minerals, with very few calories. Orange vegetables like carrots, and dark leafy greens, such as spinach and collards, are good sources of vitamin A, an important nutrient to keep your eyesight keen, your skin healthy, and your immune system strong. Broccoli, pepper, and tomatoes are full of vitamin C, which promotes healing and keeps keep ligaments, tendons, and gums healthy. And beans and lentils supply potassium, which enables the body to convert blood sugar into glycogen, a stored form of energy that’s held in reserve by the muscles and liver.

    Myth #3: To get calcium in your diabetic diet, you have to consume dairy products.

    Milk, yogurt, and cheese are rich in calcium, which is important for building and protecting bones, Calcium Sources but they’re not the only sources of this mineral. Today, many foods are fortified with calcium, including orange juice, soy milk, breads, and cereals. Other nondairy sources of calcium are canned salmon and sardines with bones, collard greens, broccoli, and almonds. If you find it difficult to get enough calcium from your diet, you can also take calcium and glucose supplements.
    Food for Type 2 Diabetes – Nutrition Mythbusters

    Myth #4: Meat, chicken, and fish are the best sources of protein.

    Foods with protein help your body build muscle and tissue, and provide diabetes vitamins and minerals. Animal sources—meat, poultry, fish, and dairy products–have what’s called complete protein, that is, they contain all the amino acids needed to build new proteins. Proteins from fruits, vegetables, grains, and nuts are called incomplete proteins—they’re missing one or more amino acids. But animal sources of protein have their drawbacks: red meat and poultry skin are high in fat, especially saturated fat (a healthy diabetic diet plan should have less than 10% of calories from saturated fat). If you eat meat, stick to lean cuts, chicken with the skin removed, and fish. If you want to try vegetable sources of protein, try beans, nuts, and whole grains.

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